Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
The carpal tunnel is a narrow passageway in your wrist that allows nine tendons in the fingers and thumb, as well as the median nerve, to travel into the hand. Pressure inside the carpal tunnel may be increased by repetitive wrist motions, gripping, or sustained wrist and finger positions. This increased pressure on the nerve may cause wrist pain, numbness and tingling in the thumb and first two fingers, and eventual hand weakness.
De Quervain's Syndrome
This condition involves inflammation of the tendons of the thumb. Pain is very noticeable in the wrist and thumb during general thumb use and during gripping and pinching activities.
Fractures to Hand or Wrist
A common mechanism of injury is falling on an outstretched arm with the wrist hyper-extended. Proper alignment of the bone(s) is essential for normal healing and restoration of motion. In addition, because of important vessels and nerves surrounding these structures, it is very important to follow-up with an orthopedic surgeon or a hand specialist.
Guyon Canal Syndrome
This condition involves the ulnar nerve and artery as they pass into the hand at the wrist (on the small-finger side of the hand). It is also known as "handlebar palsy" - named for pressure on the ulnar nerve in the hand from the handlebars of a bicycle during long-distance cycling. Pressure on this nerve causes numbness and tingling in the ring and small finger, pain on the small-finger side of the hand, and eventual hand weakness.
Mallet finger is an injury to the fingertip. It commonly occurs when the tip of the finger is hit or struck. With this injury, the tendon that straightens the tip of the finger is disrupted, and the finger ends up in a bent position. Mallet finger can also be associated with a fracture of the fingertip. You may need to see a specialist if there is a fracture or if the finger does not heal properly.
Tendonitis, simply put, is inflammation of the tendon, which can be caused by sudden trauma or as a result of a repetitive strain injury. A tendon is what connects muscle to bone, and it typically crosses a joint. Overuse of the joint or muscle causes inflammation of the tendon. Tendonitis is very common in the wrist and hand.
Teondon/Ligament Injuries to Fingers
These types of injuries usually occur with direct impact or trauma to the fingers ("jammed finger") or forceful gripping of an object that is moving. Pain may occur with movement, or in some cases, finger movement may not occur at all if a tendon is ruptured. Proper medical attention by a physician is necessary to avoid permanent deformity to the finger involved.
Trigger finger, also known as stenosing tenosynovitis, can occur in any of the fingers or thumb. It is caused by the swelling of one of the tendons that bend the finger or thumb. This tendon inflammation causes the finger to catch in a bent position. Straightening of the finger will then cause it to snap. Trigger finger can be associated with chronic inflammation (i.e. rheumatoid arthritis), overuse of the hand, or from using tools with hard or sharp edges.